MINI-DICTIONARY

In July, 2014, Granny wrote; “Our government [United States] has lied to us about the effects of Cannabis for over seven decades. They have blocked virtually all research into Cannabis and how it heals. They have ranked a never fatal herbal medicine with the most deadly kinds of drugs, against all scientific evidence! Yet, somehow, that inconvenient truth keeps coming out – Cannabis heals! It is time that we, as a nation, demand that the truth be openly acknowledged and research into this amazing plant begun! As my Grandfather said, If the truth won’t do, then something is wrong”!

Granny made a few suggestions for dealing with The List as a pdf; here are those hints adapted for online use:

  • Try reading the news articles first, then move on to the studies,
  • Open the Mini-dictionary in a new window or tab to refer to while reading the studies,
  • Open another window or tab in your preferred search engine for those ‘weird words’ – usually you won’t even need to open a link – the definition is often visible in the excerpts shown.

Granny further noted that as studies age, they are often freed up for public use. PubMed (‘ncbi’ in the URL), in the time it takes for Granny to collect the abstract and you clicking the link, sometimes will make the study ‘open access’. So Granny’s link may take you to the abstract, but in the top, right-hand corner will sometimes be a link to the free full study either at PubMed, or another site. Always check for the full study.

“Also, don’t be afraid of going to PubMed – they don’t bite, and the site is free, simple and user-friendly. Older studies often have the basic information on Cannabis that many people will find helpful, and they are usually easier to read! Don’t pass them up just because they are not the latest! Remember that studying the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is brand-new science. There are bound to be contradicting studies and studies with mixed results! Scientists or ‘just regular folks’, all of us are figuring out and learning about the ECS as we go along!”

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Sci-Speak to English

Just a Few Definitions to Help You Along

Aberrant crypt foci – little irritated spots that can turn into tumors
Acetylcholine – a common neurotransmitter
Achalasia – a disease of the esophagus, a failure of smooth muscle fibers to relax
Acute – sharp or severe in effect; intense
Adenosine – a compound that makes you feel tired
Adipose tissue – fat cells
Adipocyte – a fat cell
Adipogenesis – formation of fat cells
Adjunct – a medication used in conjunction with another to help it work better
Adjuvant – a substance that acts to prolong, or enhance antigen-specific immune response
2-AG (2-Arachidonoylglycerol) – endocannabinoid, “messenger chemical” made by the body that activates CB1 and CB2 receptors in a similar way to THC
Afferent – conveying impulses toward the central nervous system/brain
Ageusia – a complete lack of the sense of taste
Agonist – a chemical that activates a receptor
Aliquots – small samples from a larger piece of a substance
Allergen – a substance that causes an allergic reaction
Allodynia – pain due to a stimulus which does not normally cause pain, (i.e., a light touch)
Allostasis – maintaining homeostasis by using hormones such as adrenalin, cortisol etc
Allostatic load – damage from chronic exposure to elevated or fluctuating hormones from stress
Allosteric – works through a “back door” mechanism, not the usual binding site
Amygdala – an area of the brain that plays a key role in the processing of emotions
Amyloid plaque – globs of misfolded proteins that “gum up” the brain in Alzheimer’s disease
Analgesic – pain relieving
Analogue – a synthetic version
Anandamide/AEA – endocannabinoid, “messenger chemical” made by the body – similar to THC
Anaplasia – normal cells de-evolving and degrading into cancer cells
Anapyrexia – body temp dropping below normal
Angiogenesis – making new blood vessels, often to feed a tumor
Anhedonia – the inability to feel pleasure or joy
Anorectic – Pertaining to anorexia, a lack of appetite
Antagonist – a chemical that blocks the action of an agonist
Antigen – a substance which causes an immune response
Anti-nociception – pain relieving
Anxiogenic – causing anxiety
Anxiolytic – calming, anti-anxiety
Apoptosis – a process that leads to the normally programed death of a cell
Aqueous humor – the liquid between the colored iris and the clear cornea of your eye
Arachidonic acid (AA) – an essential Omega 6 found in animal fats, but too much is inflammatory
Ascites – a buildup of fluid in the abdomen, often due to severe liver disease
Astrocytes – Glial cells that link the vascular system to its neighboring neurons
Ataxia – lack of muscle coordination during movements like walking, or picking up objects
Atherogenesis – the formation of arterial plaques, as in atherosclerosis
Autapse – a synapse formed by the axon of a neuron on its own dendrites
Autocatalysis – when a single chemical reaction happens
Autocrine – when a cell secretes a compound that binds to receptors on the same type of cell
Autopathic – relating to the structure and characteristics of a diseased organism. Idiopathic
Autophagy – the cell self-destructs, literally “eats itself”
Axion – a nerve fiber, a long, slender projection from a nerve cell
Baroreflex – the way your body uses your heart rate to control blood pressure
Beta amyloid plaque/β-amyloid/Aβ – the stuff that gums up your brain in Alzheimer’s
BHO – “Butane Honey Oil”, a clear yellowish, potent cannabis extract made with butane
Biphasic – different results for different doses, THC stops or causes nausea depending on dose
–blast – maker, for example, an osteoblast is a bone-making cell
Broad-spectrum CBD – a combination of cannabinoids, but contains no THC.
Bronchodilator – opens up the lungs

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Cachexia – severe wasting away due to illness
Cannabinoids – they activate cannabinoid receptors and are made in the body, cannabis or laboratories
Cannabinomimetic – acts like a cannabinoid and gets you “high”
Capacitation – chemical changes in a sperm that let it fertilize an egg
Carcinoma – cancer
Cartilage – the soft bone-like stuff in the nose, ears and joints
Caveolae – little caves or pits in the cell membrane that trap fluids
CB1 receptors – found mostly in the brain and central nervous system, these receptors can get you “high”, ease pain, promote sleep and much more
CB2 receptors – found mostly in the body, these receptors control inflammation and immune responses, but have no “high”
CBD isolate – a pure CBD extract that contains no THC or other cannabinoids
CCK – an intestinal homone that tells you that you are full and satisfied
Cell oncosis – the cells fill with water and calcium, their proteins denature and they die
Central nervous system/CNS – the brain and spinal cord
Chemotaxis – the movement of a cell or bacteria toward, or from a stimulus (food or a poison)
Cholestasis – a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum
Cholinergics – drugs that inhibit, enhance, or mimic the action of acetylcholine
Chondrogenesis – formation of cartilage
Chromatin fibers – these become coiled and condensed to form chromosomes when cells divide
Chondrocytes – the only kind of cells found in healthy cartilage
Chronic – long term, continuous
Cirrhosis – scarring (usually) of the liver, impairing function
–clast – destroyer, for example, an osteoclast is a cell that breaks down bone
Claustrum – a thin, irregular, sheet of neurons attached to the bottom of the brain’s neocortex
Clinical testing – testing that is done with humans to see if a drug is safe and effective
Cogeners – related chemicals
Cold–natured Diet – cold food examples – melons, coconut, asparagus, cauliflower, pumpkin and sweet fruits
Colocalize – to occur together in the same cell
Corticolimbic circuits – brain circuits that control cognitive and emotional behavioral processes
COX–2 – a key enzyme that oxidizes Anandamide and promotes inflammation
Cross tolerance – tolerance to a drug causes tolerance to another, similar, drug
Cryofixed – frozen with liquid nitrogen for electron microscopic examination
Cutaneous – pertaining to the skin
Cypin – A protein that regulates neuron branching
Cytokine storm – when the immune system sends out “kill anything that moves” orders instead of “kill the virus” and a lot of innocent (healthy) cells die
Cytotoxic – poisonous to living cells
Decarboxylation/Decarbing – a method to change THCA into THC, increasing the high
Decidualization – changes in cells of the endometrium of the uterus in preparation for pregnancy
Decoction – a water extract of a herb, basically, a very strong herbal tea
Demyelinating diseases – diseases in which the myelin on nerves is destroyed, as in MS
Dimer – a molecule composed of two identical, simpler molecules.
Diploid – cells that have the normal number of chromosomes
Discrimination – When trained mice are dosed with a drug, they then go to a specific spot for a reward
Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) – an animal form of Omega 3
Dopamine – a neurotransmitter that helps control the brain’s reward and pleasure centers
Dose-dependent manner – the more medicine the patient got, the more effectively it worked
Downregulation – a decrease in number
Dysautonomic Syndrome – an umbrella term used to describe (POTS), multiple system atrophy, autonomic failure and autonomic neuropathy
Dysgeusia – a distortion of the sense of taste
Dysregulation – malfunctioning, out of kilter
Ectopic – in an abnormal place or position, as in an ectopic pregnancy. Opposite of orthotopic
Efferosytosis – the removal of dead or dying cells
Eicosanoids – a group of bioactive compounds that include the endocannabinoids
Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) – an animal form of Omega 3
Emesis – vomiting
Endocannabinoid – a chemical messenger made by your body- anandamide and 2-AG
Endocannabinoid System/ ECS – a system of chemical receptors on and between cells
Endocannabinoid Tone – the base level of endocannabinoids produced in the human system
Endogenous – made in your own body, opposite of exogeneous
Endothelial cells – these cells form a single cell layer that lines all blood vessels
Endotoxemia – a low–grade state of inflammation from circulating endotoxins, affects about one–third of Americans
Endotoxin – a toxic substance found in a bacterial cell wall and released when the bacterium dies
Enzyme – a substance in a living organism that brings about a specific biochemical reaction
Eosinophil – a type of disease-fighting white blood cell
Epidermal – pertaining to the skin
Epigenetic – genes being turned on, or off, by chemical reactions, but with no change to the DNA
Epithelial cells –cells lining of your gut and surfaces of structures throughout the body
EVALI – lung damage from toxic substances in (usually illegal) e-cigarettes and vape-pens
Excitotoxic – when nerve cells are damaged or killed by over-stimulation
Exogenous – from outside the body. Opposite of endogenous
Exostasis – bump or growth on a bone which is not normal
Extracellular – outside of the cells

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FAAH/ Fatty acid amide hydrolase – an enzyme that breaks down anandamide
Fascia – connective tissues
Follicule – sac or cavity having excretory, secretory, or protective function: a hair follicle
Full-spectrum CBD – this has all the cannabinoids in cannabis, including THC and CBD
GABA Glycine – it keeps nerves from firing too often
Ganglia/ganglion – a bunch of nerves outside the CNS, or some gray matter bits in the brain
Galenic – making medicines in a way that optimizes their absorption
Gene expression – the body reads a gene’s info and translates it into a product (protein, bone, etc)
Gene isoforms – different kinds of mRNAs that are produced from the same site
Genotype – all the genetic traits of an organism, both visible and hidden
Glial cells – they form myelin and provide support and protection for neurons
Glomerulus – a kidney cell involved in the first stages of filtering blood
Glutamate – a compound that many nerves use to “talk to each other”
Gonads – sex organs
GPR-55 receptor – a third cannabinoid receptor activated weakly by THC, CBD, 2-AG, anandamide
Gray matter – the outermost layer of the brain, it allows us to control our movements, retain memories and regulate our emotions
Gut–Brain Axis – your brain and guts “talk” to each other, linking brain and intestinal functions
Gut microbiota – microorganisms that live in the digestive tract
Haploid – having half the number of chromosomes of a normal cell, as in sperm and eggs
Hebbian theory – a theory about the adaptation of brain neurons during learning
Hedgehog pathway – a signaling pathway that sends info about differentiation to embryonic cells
Hemp – Cannabis sativa, refers to strains with less than 0.3% of THC
Hemoptysis – coughing up blood
Hematopoiesis – the making of new blood cells in bone marrow
Hematopoietic Stem Cells/HSC – bone marrow stem cells that can give rise to blood cells
Hemopressin – a hemoglobin fragment that dilates blood vessels using nitric oxide
Hemostasis – the process of blood clotting
Hepatic – pertaining to the liver
Heterologous – from one species to another
Heteromer – a group containing 2 or more different types of things
Hippocampus – part of the brain, controls mood and memory
Histones – proteins that take DNA and package it into bundles called nucleosomes
HIV seroconversion – when the body starts producing HIV antibodies, usually several weeks after contracting the virus causing flu–like symptoms, fever and body aches
Homologous – having the same or a similar relation, as in relative position or structure
Homeostasis – your body keeping everything in balance and working right
Hormesis – a dose-response phenomenon characterized by low–dose stimulation and high–dose inhibition, when a tiny bit of a harmful substance has a beneficial effect
Hot–natured Diet – hot food, for example, tomatoes, ginger, onions, mustard, pepper and ghee
Hydrolase – an enzyme that uses water to break a chemical bond, dividing a large molecule to smaller ones
Hydrolysis – breaking down a compound using enzymes
Hyper – over, above, extreme
Hyperalgesia – severe pain
Hypercapnia – too much CO2 in the blood
Hyperemesis – severe vomiting
Hyperemic – an abnormally large amount of blood accumulating in any part of the body
Hyperphagic – over–eating
Hyperthermia – a fever
Hyperplasia – an increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue or an organ
Hypo – under, or below
Hypocretin (aka orexin) – a neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness and appetite
Hypogeusia – a decrease in taste sensitivity, having a lowered ability to taste
Hypokinesia – condition characterized by decreased bodily movement
Hypophagic – under–eating
Hypothermia – lowered body temperature
Hypoxaemia – low oxygen levels in blood
Hypoxia – not getting enough oxygen

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Ictal – refers to a physiologic state or event such as a seizure, stroke, or headache
Ictus – an epileptic seizure, or alternatively, a stroke
Idiopathic – of unknown cause
Incretins – metabolic hormones that are released after eating, stimulating a decrease in blood glucose
Indica – short plants, broad leaves, solid buds; “heavy” body high, good pain relief, some CBD
Inflammasome – immune system receptors and sensors that regulate inflammation
Inflorescences – flowers
Innate – something you are born with
In silico – done on a computer
Insula – in the cerebral cortex, involved in bodily homeostasis, self-awareness and emotions
In vivo – in a live animal
In vitro – in a test tube
Infarction – damage from a lack of blood due to a blood vessel blockage
Interoception – being aware of your body, knowing if you’re hot, hungry, ill, etc
Intraocular – inside the eye
Intrathecal injection – injected under the arachnoid membrane of the brain or spinal cord
Intrauterine – inside the uterus
Inverse agonist – binds to a receptor like an agonist, but causes the opposite effect
In vivo – in a live animal
In vitro – in a test tube
Involution – the shrinking or return of an organ to a former size, as in a post-pregnancy uterus
Ischemia – damage from lack of blood to an area

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Jejunum – the middle section of the small intestine in most higher animals
Karyopyknosis (aka Pyknosis) – the irreversible condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a dying cell
Koro – a fear that one’s genitals are retracting and will disappear, “genital retraction syndrome”
Lactating – producing breast milk, nursing
Leptin – a hormone that turns on hunger
Leukocytospermia – too many white blood cells in the semen causing serious fertility problems
Leukotrienes – compounds that promote asthma and allergic reactions
Ligand – a chemical that binds to a receptor – THC is a ligand of CB1 and CB2 receptors
Linoleic acid (LA) – is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid
Lipids – fats and oils
LOAEL – Lowest dose at which there was an observed toxic or adverse effect
Lordosis – where the back is arched excessively, inward in humans, or downward in animals
Lyophilize – to freeze-dry
Lysis – the death, destruction or decomposition of a cell
Macrophages – specialized cells that attack foreign substances, disease germs and cancer cells
Magistral – made as a remedy for a specific case of illness
MAGL – an enzyme that breaks down 2-AG
MAPK–JNK signal pathway – the way the receptor’s message gets into the nucleus’ DNA
Meiosis – cell division that results in a sex cell (sperm or egg)
Meninges – the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord
Mesenchymal stem cells – cells that develop into connective tissue, blood vessels and lymphatic tissue
Mesenteric ischemia – a lack of blood flow to the intestines that can result in death
Messenger RNA (mRNA) – a group of RNA molecules that take genetic information from DNA to the ribosome
Metabolites – what’s left over after your body breaks down a compound
Metastasis – spreading through the body
Microglial cells – they destroy germs and remove dying cells, but can “go crazy”, doing damage
Microphage – a white blood cell capable of ingesting bacteria, etc
MicroRNA – short, single–stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression
Micturation – urination, peeing
Mitosis – one cell divides into 2 identical “carbon copies” of itself
Modulate – control or regulate something
Monocytes – big white blood cells that can change into macrophages or dendritic cells
Murine – mouse or related rodent
Mydriasis – a disorder in which the pupil of the eye dilates abnormally and stays dilated
Myelin – a protective covering on the axion part of a nerve cell
Myocardial – pertaining to the heart muscle
Myopericarditis – Inflammation of the heart wall and the sac around it, the pericardium
N-acylethanolamines – fatty acid amides including anandamide, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide
Nanomolar – a very tiny amount
Necrotic – dead or dying
Negative affect – negative emotions and poor self-concept (anger, guilt, fear, or nervousness)
Nephritis – inflammation of the kidneys
Nephro – referring to the kidneys
Neurogenesis – new brain cells are being formed
Neurological soft signs (NSS) – Minor problems in coordination, complex motor tasks and integrative functions
Neuroma – a growth or tumor of nerve tissue. Neuromas tend to be benign (non-cancerous)
Neuropathic pain – pain due to nerve injury
Neuropeptide – compounds used by neurons to “talk” with each other
Neurophatogenic – causing disease of nervous system
Neuroprotective – protects nerves and brain cells
Neurotransmitter – a chemical messenger that carries messages between neurons and other cells
Neutral antagonist – it returns the receptor activity to base-line normal, a “re-set button”
Neutrophil – the most common type of white blood cell
NOAEL – Highest dose at which there was no observable toxic or adverse effect
Nocebo – a harmless substance that creates harmful effects in a patient. Opposite of placebo
Nociceptive pain – pain from a stimulus such as heat or tissue damage
Nociceptor – pain nerve
Nociplastic pain arises from sensitization of the brain and spinal cord. Some conditions that fall into this pain category are fibromyalgia, migraines, irritable bowel syndrome and most cases of chronic low–back pain
Non-canonical – not conforming to the general rule
Nonpsychoactive – won’t get you high
Nonpsychotropic – won’t get you high
Nootropic drug – a mind enhancing drug
Nucleus accumbens – part of the brain involved in reward/addiction
Nutraceutical – foods that have medical benefits such as Echinacea, green tea and omega 3

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Obtundation – less than fully alert, an altered level of consciousness
Occluded – blocked up, as in an occluded artery
Ocular – referring to the eye
Olfactory – pertaining to smell, odor detection
Oligodendrocytes – cells that make the myelin sheath that protects CNS nerves
Oocyte – a female germ cell/egg
Orexin (aka hypocretin) – a neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness and appetite
Oromucosal – pertaining to the lining inside of the mouth
Ortholog – the same gene in different species doing the same job, traceable to a common ancestor
Orthotopic – something that occurs in the normal or usual place in the body. Opposite of ectopic
Osteoblast – a cell that makes new bone
Osteoclast – cell that breaks down bone causing bone resorption
Oviduct – a tube that connects the ovary to the uterus
Placentation – the process of forming a placenta
Palliative – health care focused on relieving and preventing suffering
Paracrine – describing a hormone that has effect only in the vicinity of the gland that secretes it
Partial agonist – doesn’t activate receptor fully, may “hog” receptors, blocking full agonists
Pathogenesis – the origin and development of a disease
Pepsin – the main digestive enzyme in the stomach
Peptic – relating to digestion, especially that in which pepsin is concerned
Peptide – string a bunch of peptides together and you get a protein
Pericardium – a thin, protective sac surrounding a heart
Periaqueductal gray – the brain’s the primary control center for reducing pain
Peripheral nervous system ( PNS) – the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord
Peritoneal – pertaining to the peritoneum that lines the walls of the abdominal cavity
Phagocyte – a “clean-up crew” cell that “eats” harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead cells
Phagocytosis – when a phagocyte “eats” a bacteria or other object by engulfing it
Phenotype – genetic traits that you can see
Photothrombosis – a procedure to cause a stroke (focal ischemia) in laboratory animals
Phosphorylation – adding of a phosphoryl group (PO3-) to an organic molecule
Phytocannabinoid – a cannabinoid produced by a plant – THC and CBD are examples
Phyto– – referring to plants
Phytocannabinoid – a cannabinoid made by a plant, such as THC, CBD, THCV, etc
Phytochemical – a compound produced by a plant
Placentation – the process of forming a placenta
Pleiotropic – producing many effects, especially when referring to genes
Pluripotent – (describing a stem cell) able to give rise to several different cell types
Pneumomediastinum – a hole in a lung that allows air into the space between the two lungs
Podocyte – a kidney cell that filters blood
Polymorphism – having more than one form, different phenotypes in genes
Polyp – an extra piece of tissue that grows inside your body
Polyploid – having more than the normal number of chromosomes
Polypoid – resembling a polyp
Polyvalent – able to treat more than one disease or condition
Porcine – pertaining to pigs
Post-ictal – relating to the time after a seizure
Post-mortem – relating to the time after death
Pre-clinical testing- testing that is done in test tubes, or on animals
Pregaming – getting intoxicated prior to going out socializing
Prions – they cause Mad Cow Disease
Prodromal – early sign or symptom that shows up before the onset of a disease
Prostacyclins – prostanoids that are active in the resolution phase of inflammation
Prostanoids – a group of eicosanoids consisting of prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins
Prostaglandins – compounds that control inflammation and anaphylactic reactions
Proteolysis – the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids
Proteomics – the study of the all the kinds of proteins in a certain kind of organism
Proteotoxicity – toxicity caused by proteins, usually by misfolded proteins
Pruritus – chronic itchiness
Psychoactive – will get you high
Psychotropic – will get you high
Ptosis – saggy eyelids, when the upper eyelid is less than 2 mm from midpupil.
Pterygium/Surfer’s Eye – a growth on the eye that can occur in people who are in the sun a lot
Pulmonary – pertaining to the lungs
Pyknosis (aka karyopyknosis) – the irreversible condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a dying cell

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QOL – quality of life
Receptors – these receive the chemical messages and send them into our cells
Redox – (reduction–oxidation reaction) is a chemical reaction where the oxidation state of an atom is changed. If oxygen is added the atom is said to have been “oxidized”. If oxygen is removed it is said to have been “reduced”
Refractory – non–reversible, responding to the usual treatments, difficult to treat
Refractory pain – pain not responding to the usual treatments, stubborn pain
Renal – pertaining to the kidneys
Reperfusion damage – damage caused when blood returns to an area
Reuptake – reabsorption of a substance by the cells that originally produced it
Rhabdomyolysis – the rapid destruction of skeletal muscle
Ribosomes – tiny particles inside cells that help link amino acids together to form proteins
RNA – ribonucleic acid, a long, single-stranded chain of cells that processes protein
ROS/Reactive Oxygen Species – aka free radicals, production of these can cause a cancer cell to self-destruct
RSO – “Rick Simpson’s Oil”, a very concentrated, tar-like extract of cannabis
Ruderalis – small, wild, short-season, auto-flowering strains, potency generally low
Sarcopenia – a muscle disorder with loss of muscle mass and function associated with falls, physical decline, frailty and death
Sativa – tall plant, long skinny leaves, slow maturing; a mental/party high, occasional mild paranoia
Sclerosis – a stiffening of an organ with connective tissue
Sebaceous glands – oil glands in the skin
Seronegative – testing negative for a disease
Seropositive – testing positive for a disease
SiRNA – used to inactivate or “silence” a gene to validate the gene’s function
Spermatogenesis – the process of making sperm
Stroma – the tissue that supports an organ
Subcortical – referring to the deeper tissues of the brain
Substance P – it sends pain info through the spinal cord
Synapse – a structure that lets a neuron pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron
Systemic mastocytosis – a systemic mast cell disease (SMCD) resulting the building up of too many mast cells
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy – “Broken Heart Syndrome” where stress causes a heart attack
Teratologic – causing birth defects
Terpenoids – gives cannabis its odor, may help cannabinoids to enter cells more easily
Thiophilic – having an affinity with ligands that contain sulphur
Thrombocytopenia – a loss of platelets in the blood
Thromboxanes – prostanoids that control vasoconstriction
Tinnitus – a buzzing, ringing or hissing noise in your ears
Tocolytics – drugs used to delay a premature birth
Transgenic – genetically modified, a GMO
Trichome – in cannabis, it usually refers to tiny mushroom-shaped structures that hold THC
Trigeminal nerve – responsible for sensation in the face, and biting and chewing
Tween 80 – another name for Polysorbate 80, a thickening agent in foods and medicines
Ubiquitination – “kiss of death” for proteins which are inactivated
Ubiquitin – a regulatory protein that inactivates other proteins
Upregulation – increase in number
Uveitis – infection of the middle layer of the eye involving the iris, ciliary body and/or choroid
Valorization – to enhance or try to enhance the value of something
Vascular – referring to blood vessels
Vasodilator – expands the blood vessels
Vasoconstrictor – contracts the blood vessels
Vasopressin – constricts blood vessels and is an anti-diuretic
Ventral tegmental area – works with the nucleus accumbens in reward and addiction
Vesicants – compounds that cause blistering
Visceral – pertaining to internal organs, guts
Western diet – a diet high in fat, sugar, salt and cholesterol, filled with unnatural chemicals and deficient in fiber and key nutrients
White matter – found in the deeper tissues of the brain (subcortical), it allows the exchange of information and communication between different areas of your brain
Xenograft – transplanting living cells, tissues or organs from one species into another
Xerosis – “winter itch”, rough, dry skin with fine scaling of skin
Xerostomia – “cotton mouth”, a dry mouth resulting from reduced or absent saliva flow
Yeast – some strains of yeast have been genetically altered to produce THCA
Zeitgeber – something (such as the occurrence of light or dark) that sets, or re-sets, circadian rhythm

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*Kindly note that North American English (for the most part) is used across this site, thank you

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Updated: 3 December, 2022

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