Q-S (Pre-2000)

QUITTING CANNABIS (See Also ADDICTION, WITHDRAWAL)
QUITTING OTHER DRUGS
RADIATION-INDUCED NAUSEA
RELIGION and CANNABIS
RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA
RIMONABANT / ACOMPLIA / SR141716 / SR1 (CB1 and CB2 Antagonist, Failed Diet Drug)
R(+)-METHANANANDAMIDE (Synthetic, Anandamide Analog)
SAFETY AS A MEDICINE
SAFETY-ADULTERANTS / CONTAMINANTS
SCHIZOPHRENIA / MENTAL DISORDERS
SEPTIC SHOCK
SINUSITIS
SLEEPING SICKNESS / TRYPANOSOMIASIS
SLEEP MODULATION
SMOKED CANNABIS AS A MEDICATION (See Also METHODS OF USE-SMOKING)
SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT / BEHAVIOR
SPASTICITY
SPINAL CORD INJURY
SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIA / SCA (See ATAXIA)
SPLEEN
STORAGE of CANNABIS
STROKE (See Also PERINATAL HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC INJURY)


QUITTING CANNABIS
An Abstinence Syndrome Following Chronic Administration of Delta-9-terahydrocannabinol in Rhesus Monkeys (abst–1980) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6255508
A 12-step Treatment Approach for Marijuana (Cannabis) Dependence (abst–1989) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2687482
Psychotropic Analgesic Nitrous Oxide Prevents Craving After Withdrawal for Alcohol, Cannabis and Tobacco (abst–1994) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7960461
top


QUITTING OTHER DRUGS
The Use of Indian Hemp in the Treatment of Chronic Chloral and Chronic Opium Poisoning (1889) http://www.onlinepot.org/medical/Dr_Tods_PDFs/s3_2.pdf
Cannabis substitution . An adjunctive therapeutic tool in the treatment of alcoholism (abst-1970) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=86
The Effect of Marijuana Decriminalization on Hospital Emergency Room Drug Episodes: 1975–1978 (full–1993) http://www.drugpolicy.org/docUploads/model.pdf
Morphine-dependent rats: blockade of precipitated abstinence by tetrahydrocannabinol (abst–1975) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1167428
Differential effect of cannabinol and cannabidiol on THC-induced responses during abstinence in morphine-dependent rats (abst-1975) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=1237925&dopt=abstractplus
Effect of some cannabinoids on naloxone-precipitated abstinence in morphine-dependent mice (abst–1976) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/826944
Inhibition of naloxone-induced withdrawal in morphine dependent mice by 1-transdelta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (abst–1976) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/944134
Time course of the effects of naturally occurring cannabinoids on morphine abstinence syndrome (abst–1978) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/564515
The quasi-morphine withdrawal syndrome: effect of cannabinol, cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol (abst-1985) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=2994117&dopt=abstractplus
The Changing Pattern of Substance Abuse in Urban Adolescents (full–1998) http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=189315&resultClick=3
Marijuana use and treatment outcome among opioid-dependent patients (abst–1998) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9684388
Therapeutic use of cannabis by crack addicts in Brazil (abst-1999) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10681113


RADIATION-INDUCED NAUSEA
Randomised Clinical Trial of Levonantradol and Chlorpromazine in the Prevention of Radiotherapy-induced Vomiting (abst-1982) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6754212
A double-blind randomised cross-over comparison of nabilone and metoclopramide in the control of radiation-induced nausea (abst-1987) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=130


RELIGION and CANNABIS
Marijuana in the Bible with cognate study of KNH, BSM & MKNH in the literal Word with Genesis 4:1; 14:19,22; 1st Kings 14:15, Ezekiel 31:9, Matthew 11:7, Luke 7:24 for the revelatory Word (article–undated) http://www.universalorthodox.org/Marijuana-in-the-Bible.pdf
ON INDICATIONS OF THE HACHISH-VICE IN THE OLD TESTAMENT (1903) http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/history/hashot.htm
top
The Religious and Medicinal Uses of Cannabis in China, India and Tibet (full-1981) http://www.cnsproductions.com/pdf/Touw.pdf
Thandai and chilam: traditional Hindu beliefs about the proper uses of Cannabis (abst–1985) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3903086
Marijuana and the Bible (article–1988) https://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_spirit2.shtml
Kaneh Bosm: Cannabis in the Old Testament (article–1997) http://www.cannabisculture.com/articles/1090.html


RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA
Smoking dope restored my sight (news/anecdotal-1998) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/212301.stm


RIMONABANT / ACOMPLIA / SR141716/ SR1
SR141716A, a potent and selective antagonist of the brain cannabinoid receptor (abst–1994) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8070571
Cannabinoids enhance human B-cell growth at low nanomolar concentrations (full–1995) http://ac.els-cdn.com/001457939500746V/1-s2.0-001457939500746V-main.pdf?_tid=84cf5e30-1b93-11e5-b97a-00000aacb362&acdnat=1435275790_97d5fbd61b42513c58283075bc4c0918
The CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 141716A affects A9 dopamine neuronal activity in the rat (abst–1995) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7488739
Biochemical and pharmacological characterisation of SR141716A, the first potent and selective brain cannabinoid receptor antagonist (abst–1995) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7776817
Cannabinoid precipitated withdrawal by the selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR 141716A (abst–1995) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7498260
Activation of peripheral CB1 cannabinoid receptors in haemorrhagic shock (abst-1997) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9394002
Assessment of Anandamide Interaction with the Cannabinoid Brain Receptor: SR 141716A Antagonism Studies in Mice and Autoradiographic Analysis of Receptor
Binding in Rat Brain (full–1998) http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/284/3/1209.long
SR 141716, a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, selectively reduces sweet food intake in marmoset (abst–1998) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez/10065938?dopt=Abstract&holding=f1000,f1000m,isrctn
Cannabinoid modulation of intestinal propulsion in mice (abst–1998) http://www.frontiersin.org/publications/9570450
Cannabinoid-induced mesenteric vasodilation through an endothelial site distinct from CB1 or CB2 receptors (full–1999) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC24203/
Anandamide induces overeating: mediation by central cannabinoid (CB1) receptors (abst–1999) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs002130050953


R(+)-METHANANANDAMIDE
(R)-methanandamide: a chiral novel anandamide possessing higher potency and metabolic stability (abst–1994) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8021930
top


SAFETY AS A MEDICINE
What is the lethal dose of marijuana? (news–undated) http://druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/mj_overdose.htm
THE RELATIVE ACTIVITY OF VARIOUS PURIFIED PRODUCTS OBTAINED FROM AMERICAN GROWN HASHISH (abst-1938) http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/62/2/239.abstract?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=cannabis&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=640&resourcetype=HWCIT
STUDIES ON THE PHARMACOLOGY AND ACUTE TOXICITY OF COMPOUNDS WITH MARIHUANA ACTIVITY (abst-1946) http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/88/2/154.abstract?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=marihuana&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT
Allergy to Marihuana (abst–1971) http://annals.org/article.aspx?volume=75&page=571
The Report of the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse Acute Effects of Marihuana (full–1972) http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/studies/nc/nc1e.htm
Cognition and Long-Term Use of Ganja (Cannabis) (full-1981) http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/medical/cognition.htm
Excerpt from the Merck Manual (excerpt-1987) http://www.ukcia.org/research/merck.htm
THREE THINGS MARIJUANA DOESN’T DO (news-1992) http://www.ukcia.org/research/mjfaq2.php
Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do not smoke tobacco (full-1993) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1311782/pdf/westjmed00082-0044.pdf
The Effect of Marijuana Decriminalization on Hospital Emergency Room Drug Episodes: 1975–1978 (full–1993) http://www.drugpolicy.org/docUploads/model.pdf
Proven: Cannabis is safe medicine (news-1996) http://www.ukcia.org/research/safe-medicine.htm
Regular Marijuana Users Have No Higher Rates Of Mortality, Long-Term Study Concludes (news–1997) http://norml.org/news/1997/05/15/regular-marijuana-users-have-no-higher-rates-of-mortality-long-termstudy-concludes


SAFETY- ADULTERANTS / CONTAMINANTS
Examination of fungal growth and aflatoxin production on marihuana (abst–1977) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/414138
Paraquat goes to pot (full-1978) http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/article.aspx?articleid=1049877
Paraquat and marihuana. Assessing the hazard (full-1978) http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/article.aspx?articleid=1049876
An effect of paraquat on the lungs of rabbits. Its implications in smoking contaminated marihuana (full-1978) http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/data/Journals/CHEST/21013/418.pdf
Detection and analysis of paraquat in confiscated marijuana samples (abst–1978) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/258606
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis associated with smoking moldy marihuana (full-1978) http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/data/Journals/CHEST/21008/871.pdf
Paraquat and marijuana: epidemiologic risk assessment (full-1983) http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1650884&tool=pmcentrez
top
Marijuana smoking and fungal sensitization (full-1983) http://www.jacionline.org/article/0091-6749%2883%2990067-2/pdf
Fatal aspergillosis associated with smoking contaminated marijuana, in a marrow transplant recipient (full-1988) http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/data/Journals/CHEST/21581/432.pdf
Microbiological contaminants of marijuana (full-1994) http://www.hempfood.com/IHA/iha01205.html
Successfully treated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis associated with smoking marijuana in a renal transplant recipient (abst-1996) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8685958


SCHIZOPHRENIA / MENTAL DISORDERS
The Report of the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse Acute Effects of Marihuana (full–1972) http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/studies/nc/nc1e.htm
radical notion (letter-1974) http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/1/11/16 -a?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=cannabis&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=1040&resourcetype=HWCIT
Study Shows Long Term Marijuana Users Healthy (news-1994) http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_science3.shtml
Immunology in medical practice. XIV. Central nervous system complications in systemic autoimmune diseases (abst–1998) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9623096


SEPTIC SHOCK
Protection Against Septic Shock and Suppression of Tumor Necrosis Factor α and Nitric Oxide Production by Dexanabinol (HU-211), a Nonpsychotropic Cannabinoid (full-1997) http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/283/2/918.full
Cardiovascular actions of cannabinoids and their generation during shock (abst–1998) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9846953


SINUSITIS
HEMP AS A MEDICAMENT : Cannabis indica in oto-rhino-laryngology (full-1955) http://www.bushka.cz/KabelikEN/otorhino.html


SLEEPING SICKNESS / TRYPANOSOMIASIS
The trypanocidal effect of Cannabis sativa constituents in experimental animal trypanosomiasis (African Sleeping Sickness) (abst–1994) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7900270


SLEEP MODULATION
Effect of cannabis and certain of its constituents on pentobarbitone sleeping time and phenazone metabolism (full-1972) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1666020/
(−)δ9 THC as an hypnotic (abst–1973) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00437513#page-1
top


SMOKED CANNABIS AS A MEDICATION
CANNABIS AND MARINOL IN THE TREATMENT OF MIGRAINE HEADACHE (full-undated) http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/migrn2.htm
Marihuana smoking and intraocular pressure (abst-1971) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=47
Smoked marijuana and oral delta-9-THC on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects (full-1974) http://www.ukcia.org/research/SmokedAndOralInAsthmatic.php
Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma (full-1975) http://www.ukcia.org/research/InducedAsthma/index.php
Anticonvulsant nature of marihuana smoking (abst-1975) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=39
Short-term effects of smoked marihuana on left ventricular function in man (full-1977) http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/data/Journals/CHEST/20995/20.pdf
Effect of marihuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma (full-1980) http://www.ukcia.org/research/EffectOnIntraocularAndBloodPressureInGlaucoma.php
Comparison of effects of marihuana cigarettes of three different potencies (full-1982) http://www.nature.com/clpt/journal/v31/n5/pdf/clpt198286a.pdf
Evaluation of the Use of Both Marijuana and THC in Cancer Patients for the Relief of Nausea and Vomiting Associated With Cancer Chemotherapy After Failure of Conventional Anti-Emetic Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity (full–1983) http://www.gacareproject.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Binder1.pdf
Oral vs. Inhaled Cannabinoids for Nausea/Vomiting from Cancer Chemotherapy (full-1988) http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/medical/pierson.html
Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight of humans living in a residential laboratory (abst-1988) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=117
Marijuana Smoking: Factors That Influence the Bioavailability of Tetrahydrocannabinol (full-1990) http://www.ukcia.org/research/FactorsThatInfluenceBioavailability.pdf
Effects of delta 9-THC on marijuana smoking, dose choice, and verbal report of drug liking (full-1994) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1334408/?tool=pubmed
The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis (abst-1997) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=13
Marijuana Smoking vs Cannabinoids for Glaucoma Therapy (full-1998) http://archopht.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/116/11/1433


SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT / BEHAVIOR
MARIHUANA INTOXICATION (abst-1934) http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=140836
MARIHUANA AND AGGRESSIVE CRIME (abst-1946) http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=143110
Mr. X by Carl Sagan (article-1969) http://marijuana-uses.com/mr-x/
top
Marihuana Use and Psychosocial Adaptation (abst-1974) http://archpsyc.amaassn.org/cgi/content/abstract/31/5/713?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=marihuana&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT
Adolescent Marihuana Use: Role of Parents and Peers (abst–1976) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4726001
Ganja in Jamaica: The Effects of Marijuana Use (book exerpts-1976) http://csp.org/chrestomathy/ganja_in.html
The Effect of Marijuana on Small Group Process (abst–1977) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/612199
Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol: antiaggressive effects in mice, rats, and squirrel monkeys (abst-1978) http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/199/4336/1459?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=marihuana&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=240&resourcetype=HWCIT
Marihuana and mood in human volunteers (abst–1978) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/674253
Marinol vs. Marijuana: Politics, Science, and Popular Culture (article–1997) http://members.iowatelecom.net/sharkhaus/marinol_long.html
Long-term cannabis use: characteristics of users in an Australian rural area (abst-1998) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9744119


SPASTICITY
The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males (abst-1974) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=138
Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity (abst-1980) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=53
Treatment of human spasticity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (abst-1981) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=8
Cannabis effect on spasticity in spinal cord injury (abst-1982) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=113
Effect of Delta-9-THC on EMG Measurements in Human Spasticity (abst-1986) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=110
The effect of delta-9-THC on human spasticity (abst-1986) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=154
Delta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (abst-1987) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=1
Effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis (abst-1989) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=2
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial (abst-1990) http://www.springerlink.com/content/3826667673770p51/fulltext.pdf?page=1
Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (abst-1995) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=11
Treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury with dronabinol, a tetrahydrocannabinol derivative (abst-1995) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=112
The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients (abst-1996) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=12
top


SPINAL CORD INJURY
The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males (abst-1974) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=138
Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity (abst-1980) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=53
Cannabis effect on spasticity in spinal cord injury (abst-1982) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=113
The effect of delta-9-THC on human spasticity (abst-1986) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=154
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial (abst-1990) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=160
Treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury with dronabinol, a tetrahydrocannabinol derivative (abst-1995) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=112
The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients (abst-1996) http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/ww_en_db_study_show.php?s_id=12
Involvement of Dynorphin B in the Antinociceptive Effects of the Cannabinoid CP55,940 in the Spinal Cord (full-1997) http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/281/2/730.full
Cannabis and cannabinoids: pharmacology and rationale for clinical use (abst–1999) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10575283


SPLEEN
Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids (abst–1993) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7689702


STORAGE of CANNABIS
The stability of cannabis and its preparations on storage (abst–1976) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6643
The decomposition of acidic and neutral cannabinoids in organic solvents (abst–1977) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17692
Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XIII: Stability of dosage form prepared by impregnating synthetic (–)-delta 9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol on placebo Cannabis plant material (abst–1978) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/660481
Stability of Cannabis sativa L. samples and their extracts, on prolonged storage in Delhi (abst–1978) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/258607
Stability of Cannabinoids in Dried Samples of Cannabis Dating from Around 1896-1905 (abst–1990) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2314109


STROKE
The inhibitory effects of cannabinoids, the active constituents of Cannabis sativa L. on human and rabbit platelet aggregation (abst-1989) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2575149
HU-211, a Novel Noncompetitive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Antagonist, Improves Neurological Deficit and Reduces Infarct Volume After Reversible Focal Cerebral Ischemia in the Rat (full-1995) http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/26/12/2313
top
Marijuana chemical tapped to fight strokes? (news-1998) http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Marijuana+chemical+tapped+to+fight+strokes.-a020973037
Dope hope for stroke victims (news-1998) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/126181.stm
Cannabinoids and Neuroprotection in Global and Focal Cerebral Ischemia and in Neuronal Cultures (full-1999) http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/19/8/2987?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=cannabinoid&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT
Dexanabinol; a novel neuroprotective drug in experimental focal cerebral ischemia (abst–1999) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10202976


Advertisements