Gait-Gut/Brain Axis 2015-2020


*Articles/Studies in Pre-2000 List
+Articles/Studies in 2000-2009 List
^Articles/Studies in 2010-2014 List
>Information in Another Section

GASTROPARESIS (Inability of the Stomach to Empty in a Normal Fashion)
GERM-FREE ORGANISMS (Animals Raised in Totally Sterile Conditions)
GERMINAL MATRIX HEMORRHAGE (Brain-bleed in Premature Infants)
GOUT (See Also News Articles 2010-2018)
GRAVE’S DISEASE+^ (Overactive Thyroid)

Motor, Visual and Emotional Deficits in Mice after Closed-Head Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Are Alleviated by the Novel CB2 Inverse Agonist SMM-189. (USA) (full – 2015)
Walking improvements with nabiximols in patients with multiple sclerosis. (Italy) (link to PDF – 2015)
JWH-018 impairs sensorimotor functions in mice. (Italy) (abst – 2015)
VCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease. (Spain/ Italy) (full – 2016)
Social defeat leads to changes in the endocannabinoid system; an overexpression of calreticulin and motor impairment in mice. (Germany/ Italy/ Spain/ Ghana) (link to PDF – 2016)
Effect of combined oral doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models. (Canada) (abst – 2016) Influence of Previous Failed Antispasticity Therapy on the Efficacy and Tolerability of THC:CBD Oromucosal Spray for Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity. (Germany/ Spain) (abst–2016)
Targeting the cannabinoid CB2 receptor to attenuate the progression of motor deficits in LRRK2-transgenic mice. (Spain) (abst – 2016)
Altered striatal endocannabinoid signaling in a transgenic mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type-3. (Spain/ Portugal/ USA) (full – 2017)
Remote Ischemia Preconditioning Attenuates Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Breakdown in Rats Undergoing Spinal Cord Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Associated with Activation and Upregulation of CB1 and CB2 Receptors. (China) (full – 2017)
The role of Sativex in robotic rehabilitation in individuals with multiple sclerosis: Rationale, study design, and methodology. (Italy) (full – 2017)
Endocannabinoid-Specific Impairment in Synaptic Plasticity in Striatum of Huntington’s Disease Mouse Model. (Canada/ USA) (full – 2017)
Cannabidiol-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol interactions on acute pain and locomotor activity. (USA) (full – 2017)
THC inhibits the expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization in mice. (Brazil) (link to PDF – 2017)
Contribution of CB1Rs in anxiety-related behaviors but not locomotor deficits induced by methamphetamine. (Iran) (link to PDF – 2017)
The effect of symptom-controlling medication on gait outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. (Australia) (abst – 2017)
Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on balance and gait in patients with dementia: A randomised controlled crossover trial. (Netherlands) (abst – 2017)
History of cannabis use is associated with altered gait. (Australia/ Germany) (abst – 2017)
In vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of ASP8477: A novel highly selective fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor. (Japan) (abst – 2017)
Cannabidiol to Improve Mobility in People with Multiple Sclerosis. (USA) (full – 2018)
Octadecylpropyl Sulfamide Reduces Neurodegeneration and Restores the Memory Deficits Induced by Hypoxia-Ischemia in Mice. (Spain) (full – 2018)
Motor neuron development in zebrafish is altered by brief (5-hr) exposures to THC (∆9- tetrahydrocannabinol) or CBD (cannabidiol) during gastrulation. (Canada) (full – 2018)
Cannabidiol effects on behaviour and immune gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio). (Denmark) (full – 2018)
Short-Term Genetic Selection for Adolescent Locomotor Sensitivity to Delta9- Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). (USA) (full – 2018)
Effects of Δ9-THC and cannabidiol vapor inhalation in male and female rats. (USA) (full – 2018)
Selective and Context-Dependent Social and Behavioral Effects of Δ9- Tetrahydrocannabinol in Weakly Electric Fish. (USA) (download – 2018) Selective and context-dependent social and behavioral effects of ∆9 … Palmitoylethanolamide prevents neuroinflammation, reduces astrogliosis and preserves recognition and spatial memory following induction of neonatal anoxia-ischemia. (Spain/ Argentina) (click “udlcat” for download – 2018)
Functional effects of synthetic cannabinoids versus Δ9 -THC in mice on body temperature, nociceptive threshold, anxiety, cognition, locomotor/exploratory parameters and depression. (Israel) (abst – 2018)
Involvement of spinal cannabinoid receptors in the antipruritic effects of WIN 55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist. (Turkey) (abst – 2018)
Cannabinoids for Treatment of Dystonia in Huntington’s Disease (Germany/ Austria) (abst–2018)
The OEA effect on food intake is independent from the presence of PPARα in the intestine and the nodose ganglion, while the impact of OEA on energy expenditure requires the presence of PPARα in mice. (Switzerland/ Singapore) (abst – 2018)
Chronic treatment with the phytocannabinoid Cannabidivarin (CBDV) rescues behavioural alterations and brain atrophy in a mouse model of Rett syndrome. (Italy/ UK) (abst – 2018)
Opposing roles of type-1 and type-2 cannabinoid receptors in cocaine stimulant and rewarding effects. (Brazil/ Ireland) (abst – 2018)
The dose-dependent psychomotor effects of intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in humans. (USA) (abst – 2018)
Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment Lacks on Detrimental Effects on Memory, Motor Performance and Anxiety in C57BL/6J Mice. (Germany) (full – 2019)
Altered Swimming Behaviors in Zebrafish Larvae Lacking Cannabinoid Receptor 2. (Puerto Rico/ USA) (full–2019)
Oral repeated-dose toxicity studies of BIA 10–2474 in Wistar rat (USA/ Switzerland) (full–2019)
Oral repeated-dose toxicity studies of BIA 10–2474 in CD-1 mice (USA/ Switzerland) (full–2019)
Oral repeated-dose toxicity studies of BIA 10-2474 in cynomolgus monkeys. (USA/ Switzerland) (full–2019)
Oral repeated-dose toxicity studies of BIA 10-2474 in beagle dogs. (USA/ Switzerland) (full–2019)
Effects of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitors Acute Administration on the Positive and Cognitive Symptoms of Schizophrenia in Mice. (Poland) (full – 2019)
Supplementation of Cannabis sativa L. leaf powder accelerates functional recovery and ameliorates haemoglobin level following an induced injury to sciatic nerve in mouse model (Pakistan/ France/ China) (link to PDF – 2019)
Monoacylglycerol lipase blockade impairs fine motor coordination and triggers cerebellar neuroinflammation through cyclooxygenase-2. (Spain/ Japan/ France) (click “cedfoundationcom” for download – 2019)
CB1 and CB2 receptors play differential roles in early zebrafish locomotor development. (Canada) (click “View PDF” for download – 2019)
Cannabidivarin completely rescues cognitive deficits and delays neurological and motor defects in male Mecp2 mutant mice. (Italy/ UK) (click “Open Access” then “airunimiit” for download – 2019)
TSFM mutations cause a complex hyperkinetic movement disorder with strong relief by st cannabinoids. (Germany) (1 page – 2019)
-8020(18)30427-9/fulltext Cannabinoids as a Potential New and Novel Treatment for Melanoma: A Pilot Study in a Murine Model. (USA) (abst – 2019)
Assessment of Acute Motor Effects and Tolerance Following Self‐Administration of Alcohol and Edible THC in Adolescent Male Mice. (USA) (abst – 2019)
Oleoylethanolamide inhibits glial activation via moudulating PPARα and promotes motor function recovery after brain ischemia. (China) (abst – 2019)
Sex-specific behavioral deficits induced at early life by prenatal exposure to the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 depend on mGlu5 receptor signaling. (Italy/ France/ USA) (abst – 2019)
Early Exposure to THC Alters M-Cell Development in Zebrafish Embryos. (Canada) (full – 2020)

Effects of various cannabinoid ligands on choice behaviour in a rat model of gambling. (Canada/ USA) (full – 2016)
Independent Versus Co-occurring Substance Use in Relation to Gambling Outcomes in Older Adolescents and Young Adults. (USA) (full – 2016)
Experience with Gambling in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: Implications for Substance Experimentation Behavior. (Italy) (abst – 2016)
SOGS-RA gambling scores and substance use in adolescents. (USA) (full – 2017)
Age of onset of cannabis use and decision making under uncertainty. (Spain) (full – 2018)
Risk Factors Associated With Gambling Involvement among a National Sample of African American and European American Young Adults. (USA) (full – 2018)
Examination of the effects of cannabinoid ligands on decision making in a rat gambling task. (Netherlands/ Canada) (full – 2018)
Spiritual belief and its link with potentially addictive behaviors in a youth sample in Switzerland. (Switzerland) (click “unilch” for download of full in English & abst in French – 2018)
Prevalence of youth gambling and potential influence of substance use and other risk factors across 33 European countries: First results from the 2015 ESPAD study. (Italy/ Czech Republic/ Hungary/ Portugal/Greece/ Germany/ Sweden/ Slovenia/ Luthuania/ Netherlands/ Slovakia/ Austria) (abst – 2018)
The last 10 years: any changes in perceptions of the seriousness of alcohol, cannabis, and substance use in Canada? (Canada/ Finland) (full – 2019)
Substance Use and Gambling Patterns Among Adolescents: Differences According to Gender and Impulsivity. (Spain) (abst – 2019)
Relationship Between Substance Use, Bullying, and Other Delinquent Behaviors Among High School Students: a Secondary Analysis of the Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey. (USA) (abst – 2019)
Pathways connecting socioeconomic variables, substance abuse and gambling behaviour: a cross-sectional study on a sample of Italian high-school students (Italy) (abst -2019)
Patterns of gambling and substance use initiation in African American and White adolescents and young adults. (USA) (abst – 2019)
Gambling and Cannabis Use: Clinical and Policy Implications. (USA) (abst – 2019)

Effect of Cannabis sativa extract on gastric acid secretion, oxidative stress and gastric mucosal integrity in rats. (Egypt) (abst – 2015)
Gastric acid inhibitory and gastric protective effects of Cannabis and cannabinoids. (Egypt) (full – 2016)
Unusual side effect of cannabis use: acute abdomen due to duodenal perforation (Turkey) (full – 2016)
MAGL inhibition modulates gastric secretion and motility following NSAID exposure in mice. (USA) (full – 2017)
Highly selective CB2 receptor agonist A836339 has gastroprotective effect on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in mice. (Poland/ Belgium/ Germany) (abst – 2017)
Modulation of central endocannabinoid system results in gastric mucosal protection in the rat. (Hungary) (link to PDF – 2018)
CB1 positive allosteric modulation attenuates Δ9-THC withdrawal and NSAID-induced gastric inflammation. (USA) (full – 2019)

Pharmacological inhibition of cannabinoid receptor 1 stimulates gastric release of nesfatin-1 via the mTOR pathway. (Spain) (full – 2017)
Review: The Role of Cannabinoids on Esophageal Function—What We Know Thus Far. (USA) (full – 2017)
A case of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome with heliobacter pylori and pre-eclampsia during pregnancy. (USA) (abst – 2017)
Cannabinoids and gastrointestinal motility: Pharmacology, clinical effects, and potential therapeutics in humans. (USA) (full – 2018)
Modulation of central endocannabinoid system results in gastric mucosal protection in the rat. (Hungary) (link to PDF – 2018)
Reduced Prevalence of Alcoholic Gastritis in Hospitalized Individuals Who Consume Cannabis. (USA/ Canada) (abst – 2019)
Cannabinoids: A Guide for Use in the World of Gastrointestinal Disease (USA) (abst–2019)

Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Gastroparesis. (USA) (Click “researchgate” for download – 2015)
Cannabinoids and gastrointestinal motility: Pharmacology, clinical effects, and potential therapeutics in humans. (USA) (full – 2018)

Cannabis for Gastroparesis Hype or Hope? (USA) (1st page- 2019)
Marijuana Use in Patients with Symptoms of Gastroparesis: Prevalence, Patient Characteristics, and Perceived Benefit. (USA) (abst – 2019)
Factors Associated With Hospital Admissions and Readmissions in Patients With Gastroparesis Using the Nationwide Readmission Database. (USA) (abst – 2019)
Impact of Cannabinoids on Symptoms of Refractory Gastroparesis: A Single-center Experience (USA) (full – 2020)

E-Cigarettes: A Review of New Trends in Cannabis Use. (Switzerland) (full – 2015)
Reasons for recent marijuana use in relation to use of other illicit drugs among high school seniors in the United States. (USA) (full – 2015)
Cannabis conundrum: Evidence of harm?: Opposition to marijuana use is often rooted in arguments about the drug’s harm to children and adults, but the scientific evidence is seldom clear-cut. (USA) (article – 2015)
The Relationships of Cigarette and Alcohol Use With the Initiation, Reinitiation, and Persistence of Cannabis Use. (USA) (link to PDF – 2016)
Prioritizing Alcohol Prevention: Establishing Alcohol as the Gateway Drug and Linking Age of First Drink With Illicit Drug Use. (USA) (abst – 2016)
Consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted legal and illegal substance use at 16. (Switzerland) (abst – 2016)
Patterns of cannabis use during adolescence and their association with harmful substance use behaviour: findings from a UK birth cohort. (UK) (full – 2017)
Cannabinoid Modulation of Eukaryotic Initiation Factors (eIF2α and eIF2B1) and Behavioral Cross-Sensitization to Cocaine in Adolescent Rats. (USA/ Sweden/ Italy) (full – 2018)
Cannabis use is associated with lower rates of initiation of injection drug use among street-involved youth: A longitudinal analysis. (Canada) (full – 2018)
Investigating causal associations between use of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and cannabis: A two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization study. (Netherlands) (link to PDF – 2018)
Does Marijuana Use at Ages 16-18 Predict Initiation of Daily Cigarette Smoking in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood? A Propensity Score Analysis of Add Health Data. (USA) (abst – 2018)
Denise Kandel’s classic work on the gateway sequence of drug acquisition. (UK/ USA) (abst – 2018)
Tobacco use: the main predictor of illicit substances use among young adolescents in Sousse, Tunisia. (Tunisia) (abst – 2018)
Exposure to ENDS advertising and use of marijuana in ENDS among college students. (USA) (abst – 2019)
Increased sensitivity to Δ9-THC-induced rewarding effects after seven-week exposure to electronic and tobacco cigarettes in mice. (Italy) (abst – 2019)
Adolescent E-cigarette use trajectories and subsequent alcohol and marijuana use. (USA) (abst – 2020)
Trends in the sequence of first alcohol, cannabis and cigarette use in Australia, 2001- 2016. (Australia/ Sweden/ UK) (abst – 2020)
Adolescent cannabis exposure increases heroin reinforcement in rats genetically vulnerable to addiction. (Italy) (abst – 2020)

Endocannabinoids and the Digestive Tract and Bladder in Health and Disease. (UK) (partial preview – 2015)
Gastric acid inhibitory and gastric protective effects of Cannabis and cannabinoids. (Egypt) (full – 2016)
Review: The Role of Cannabinoids on Esophageal Function—What We Know Thus Far. (USA) (full – 2017)

Gut microbiota: a new path to treat obesity. (Italy) (full – 2019)
Germ-free mice exhibit profound gut microbiota-dependent alterations of intestinal endocannabinoidome signaling. (Canada/ Belgium) (abst – 2019)

Minocycline Attenuates Neonatal Germinal-Matrix-Hemorrhage-Induced Neuroinflammation and Brain Edema by Activating Cannabinoid Receptor 2. (China) (link to PDF – 2015) Pharmacological Preventions of Brain Injury Following Experimental Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage: an Up-to-Date Review. (China) (link to PDF – 2015)
Cannabinoid CB2 receptor stimulation attenuates brain edema and neurological deficits in a germinal matrix hemorrhage rat model. (China) (link to download – 2015) Cannabinoid receptor 2 attenuates microglial accumulation and brain injury following germinal matrix hemorrhage via ERK dephosphorylation in vivo and in vitro. (China) (abst – 2015)
Cannabinoid receptor-2 stimulation suppresses neuroinflammation by regulating microglial M1/M2 polarization through the cAMP/PKA pathway in an experimental GMH rat model. (China) (abst – 2016)
A selective CB2R agonist (JWH133) restores neuronal circuit after Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage in the preterm via CX3CR1+ microglia. (China) (abst – 2017) 

Medical Condition:Glaucoma. (USA) st (1 case report – undated)
Marijuana for Glaucoma: A Recipe for Disaster or Treatment? (USA) (full – 2015)
Narrative review of the safety and efficacy of marijuana for the treatment of commonly state-approved medical and psychiatric disorders. (USA) (full – 2015)
Seeing over the horizon – targeting the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of ocular disease. (Canada) (full – 2015)
The Endocannabinoid System as a Therapeutic Target in Glaucoma. (Canada) (full – 2016)
Endogenous and Synthetic Cannabinoids as Therapeutics in Retinal Disease. (Greece/ Switzerland) (full – 2016)
The intraocular pressure-lowering properties of intravenous paracetamol. (South Africa) (full – 2016)
Evidence for a GPR18 Role in Diurnal Regulation of Intraocular Pressure (USA) (full–2016)
Cannabinoid receptors and TRPA1 on neuroprotection in a model of retinal ischemia. (Brazil) (download – 2016)
Cannabinoids for treatment of glaucoma. (USA) (click “aoaorg” for download – 2016)
The arguments for and against cannabinoids application in glaucomatous retinopathy. (Iran) (click “Alternate Sources”, then “xn—yibba” for download – 2016)
Pharmacological study of a cannabinoid-containing eyedrop formulation in dogs and mice. (Brazil) (abst – 2016)
A GPR119 Signaling System in the Murine Eye Regulates Intraocular Pressure in a Sex- Dependent Manner. (USA/ Taiwan) (full – 2017)
The In Vivo Effects of the CB1-Positive Allosteric Modulator GAT229 on Intraocular Pressure in Ocular Normotensive and Hypertensive Mice. (Canada/ USA/ Scotland) (full – 2017)
Neuroprotection by (endo)cannabinoids in glaucoma and retinal neurodegenerative diseases. (Italy) (full – 2017)
Novel therapeutics in glaucoma management. (Italy) (full – 2017)
Do cannabinoids play a role in the control of glaucoma? (Chile) (full in English – 2018)
(full in Spanish – 2018)
Controlled-Deactivation CB1 Receptor Ligands as a Novel Strategy to Lower Intraocular Pressure. (USA) (full – 2018)
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Differentially Regulate Intraocular Pressure. (USA) (full – 2018)
Should ophtalmologists recommend medical cannabis to patients with glaucoma? (Denmark) (abst – 2018)
Therapeutic applications of cannabinoids. (India/ Vietnam) (abst – 2018)
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Derivative-Loaded Nanoformulation Lowers Intraocular Pressure in Normotensive Rabbits. (USA) (full – 2019)
A review of systemic medications that may modulate the risk of glaucoma. (USA) (abst in English and Chinese – 2019)
Novel therapies for glaucoma: a patent review (2013-2019). (Italy) (abst – 2019)

Cannabis Roots: A Traditional Therapy with Future Potential for Treating Inflammation  and Pain (Canada/USA – full–2017)

Increased Cerebral Cannabinoid-1 Receptor Availability Is a Stable Feature of Functional Dyspepsia: A [F]MK-9470 PET Study. (Belgium) (full – 2015)
The role of the endocannabinoid system in the brain-gut axis. (Canada/ USA) (full – 2016)
An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity. (USA) (full – 2016)
The Role of Visceral Hypersensitivity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Pharmacological Targets and Novel Treatments. (Iran) (full – 2016)
Does the Gut Microbiota Influence Immunity and Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis Pathophysiology? (Poland) (full – 2017)
Nutritional status dependent endocannabinoid signalling regulates the integration of rat visceral information. (France) (full – 2017)
Impact of dietary fats on brain functions. (Italy/ France) (full – 2017)
Gut-brain axis: Role of lipids in the regulation of inflammation, pain and CNS diseases. (Italy) (link to PDF – 2017)
brain_Axis_Role_of_Lipids_in_the_Regulation_of_Inflammation_Pain_and_CNS_Diseases Gut Microbes and Health: A Focus on the Mechanisms Linking Microbes, Obesity, and Related Disorders (France/ Belgium) (full – 2018)
Effects of central RVD-hemopressin(α) administration on anxiety, feeding behavior and hypothalamic neuromodulators in the rat. (Italy/ Hungary) (link to PDF – 2018)
hemopressina_administration_on_anxiety_feeding_behavior_and_hypothalamic_neuromodulators_in_the_rat Mechanisms underlying the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fear memory processing and their hypothetical effects on fear of cancer recurrence in cancer survivors. (Japan) (link to PDF – 2018) er_survivors
Hunger, ghrelin and the gut. (USA) (abst – 2018)
Altered gut microbiota and endocannabinoid system tone in vitamin D deficiency- mediated chronic pain. (Italy/ Canada) (full – 2019)
Intestinal epithelial N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D links dietary fat to metabolic adaptations in obesity and steatosis. (Belgium/ France/ Netherlands/ Canada/ Italy) (full – 2019)
Diabesity and mood disorders: Multiple links through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. (Austria) (full – 2019)
Dietary fatty acid profile influences circulating and tissue fatty acid ethanolamide concentrations in a tissue-specific manner in male Syrian hamsters. (Canada) (full – 2019)
Targeting Peripheral CB1 Receptors Reduces Ethanol Intake via a Gut-Brain Axis. (USA/ Japan) (click “researchgate” for download – 2019)
Bioactive Lipids and the Gut-Brain Axis: Diet as a Modulator of Bioactivity and Diversity of Lipids in the Brain. (Portugal) (partial preview – 2019)
Higher odds of irritable bowel syndrome among hospitalized patients using cannabis: a propensity-matched analysis. (Canada/ USA) (abst – 2019)
Combination of cannabinoids, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), mitigates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by altering the gut microbiome. (USA) (abst – 2019)
Biological underpinnings from psychosocial stress towards appetite and obesity during youth: research implications towards metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics. (USA) (abst – 2019)
Cannabinoids and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain-Axis: Emerging Effects of Cannabidiol and Potential Applications to Alcohol Use Disorders. (USA) (abst – 2019)


Updated 21 March 2020